Voice and Video Conferencing Fundamentals Scott Firestone, Thiya Ramalingam, and Steve FryCisco Press East 96th S. Voice and Video Conferencing Fundamentals Design, develop, select, deploy, and support advanced IP-based audio and video conferencing. Voice and video conferencing fundamentals pdf. VGN-TXN17P T, VGN-. TXN19P , VGN-TXN19P L Notebook Intel GM Chipset Driver 7. f7ecc f7eccd
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Identifying Applications & Impacts of Videoconferencing . Voice Activated: Participants see the site that is currently speaking or last spoke on the . Voice and Video Conferencing Fundamentals - Kispernet video conferencing, voice and video streaming, and voice-over-IP security. who help. In Voice and Video Conferencing Fundamentals, three leading experts systematically introduce the principles, technologies, and protocols underlying today's.
If one party in a conversation is utilizing a terminal that is not an H. Gateways are widely used today in order to enable the legacy PSTN phones to interconnect with the large, international H. Gateways are also used within the enterprise in order to enable enterprise IP phones to communicate through the service provider to users on the PSTN. Gateways are also used in order to enable videoconferencing devices based on H.
Most of the third generation 3G mobile networks deployed today utilize the H. Gatekeepers[ edit ] A Gatekeeper is an optional component in the H. Those services include endpoint registration, address resolution, admission control, user authentication, and so forth.
Of the various functions performed by the gatekeeper, address resolution is the most important as it enables two endpoints to contact each other without either endpoint having to know the IP address of the other endpoint. Gatekeepers may be designed to operate in one of two signaling modes, namely "direct routed" and "gatekeeper routed" mode.
Direct routed mode is the most efficient and most widely deployed mode. In this mode, endpoints utilize the RAS protocol in order to learn the IP address of the remote endpoint and a call is established directly with the remote device.
In the gatekeeper routed mode, call signaling always passes through the gatekeeper. While the latter requires the gatekeeper to have more processing power, it also gives the gatekeeper complete control over the call and the ability to provide supplementary services on behalf of the endpoints. Likewise, gatekeepers use RAS to communicate with other gatekeepers.
A collection of endpoints that are registered to a single Gatekeeper in H. This collection of devices does not necessarily have to have an associated physical topology. Rather, a zone may be entirely logical and is arbitrarily defined by the network administrator. Gatekeepers have the ability to neighbor together so that call resolution can happen between zones.
Neighboring facilitates the use of dial plans such as the Global Dialing Scheme. Border elements and peer elements[ edit ] Figure 2 - An illustration of an administrative domain with border elements, peer elements, and gatekeepers Border Elements and Peer Elements are optional entities similar to a Gatekeeper, but that do not manage endpoints directly and provide some services that are not described in the RAS protocol.
The role of a border or peer element is understood via the definition of an " administrative domain ".
Voice and Video Conferencing Fundamentals
An administrative domain is the collection of all zones that are under the control of a single person or organization, such as a service provider.
Within a service provider network there may be hundreds or thousands of gateway devices, telephones, video terminals, or other H. The conference initiator also has the option to remove the last participant added, via another button on the phone. Reasons for removing the last participant include times when only brief consultation is desired with the last caller, and the person is not needed for the remainder of the meeting.
Another possibility is that the last person called was not there, and the call entered the voice-mail system. Depending on the type of phone and display system, the phone might present a list of participants. For these phones, other users can be selected for removal, in addition to the last person added.
Each number corresponds to a unique conference that users can join on an ad hoc basis. Administrators set up these numbers by configuring the local phone system to forward these calls to a conference server. After the phone system redirects the calls, the conference server manages them independently.
When these numbers are known, any caller can join them. Security consists of the conference system playing specific tones to the conference when callers join or depart. The meeting participants can then ask new participants to identify themselves. Bob presses the Meet Me button on the telephone to create a conference. Bob enters a desired Meet Me telephone number. If the number is not currently in use, a conference server creates the conference immediately, and Bob connects to the conference.
After Bob sets up the conference, Alice and Fred simply dial the Meet Me telephone number to join the conference on the conference bridge. Anyone knowing the number may call in. When you use a Cisco Unified CallManager phone system, the default maximum number of participants is four.
This is a configurable value. Meet Me conferences may optionally play entry or exit tones as participants join and leave the conference. Reservationless meetings are more feature-rich implementations than Meet Me conferences.
The following section describes reservationless meetings. Reservationless Conferences Reservationless meetings are an alternative to scheduled meetings and are used when the meeting organizer quickly wants to place a meeting on the calendar without specifying the number of 6 Chapter 1: Overview of Conferencing Services expected callers or the duration.
For this conference type, the meeting organizer specifies a meeting name and creates a meeting identifier or may request that the system generate one.
Unlike scheduled meetings, reservationless conferences are created immediately upon request. Resources are managed on a first-come, first-served basis. The person hosting the meeting generally dials into the conferencing system and creates a meeting instance via the Interactive Voice Response IVR system.
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Another type of reservationless meetings is an open-ended or continuous meeting. This meeting type is always active and can be joined at any time. Scheduled Conferences Scheduled conferencing allows the meeting organizer to specify resource-related items such as the number of participants, via a user interface provided by the conferencing system. Scheduled and reservationless meetings can be published on a roster or web page, allowing participants to locate and join the conference.
Some schedulers provide a telephone user interface TUI for participants who need to schedule conferences via their telephone keypad.
Another key feature of many conference systems is integration with calendaring systems such as Microsoft Outlook. This integration provides the meeting organizer with a central point for creating a meeting, inviting participants, and reserving the required conferencing resources. A scheduled conferencing system has the real, practical advantage of allowing the system to be sized smaller than the peak demand.
For example, if you cannot reserve at 10 a.
This is far superior to getting a busy signal, which is what happens if a reservationless system is undersized.
Setting Up Scheduled Conferences When creating a scheduled meeting, the meeting organizer might specify the resources required to support the number of participants and whether a meeting should support video callers.
Video Conferencing Standards and Terminology
The organizer also specifies the start and end times of the meeting. Because conferencing system resources such as dial-in capacity and audio processing power are finite, the scheduling system must manage these facilities. This accounting is generally referred to as a reservation. Conference Types 7 Resource reservation guarantees the required resources will be there when the meeting begins.
Schedulable resources in a conferencing system include some number of access ports. For each caller, one port is consumed. For non-IP-based systems, such ports may be channels on a digital telephone trunk line. In the case of IP-based systems, there is generally a system limit on the number of allowed media connections.
Depending on the configuration, this guarantee can be somewhat of an illusion because of the practice of overbooking. When the system administrator configures a conferencing system for overbooking, it is possible to reserve more access ports than actually exist.
Voice and Video Conferencing Fundamentals
The main benefit of overbooking is to allow real resource utilization to be maximized, because many times ports that are reserved for a meeting go unused. Participants might not call in, or the person scheduling the meeting overestimates the attendance. These ports are then available for other meetings. The downside to using overbooking is that it is possible that some reservations might not be honored at meeting time.
Scheduled and reservationless meetings have identifiers in the form of a meeting name and meeting identification number, also called the meeting ID.
The meeting ID is a string of digits that allows callers to identify and join the desired meeting. When joining by telephone, the participant specifies the desired meeting by entering the digit string from the telephone keypad.
The meeting organizer may specify the digit string or request that the conferencing system generate it automatically. The portal allows users to log in and schedule conferences, view future conferences, and join and control active conferences.
The conference portals also list the dial-in access information for conferences. The user follows voice prompts, entering the required information. With this option, a plug-in is installed into the Outlook calendaring application, which communicates with the conference server.
This integration eliminates the need for the user to bring up a separate browser program. After the meeting organizer enters the meeting details, the conferencing system reserves resources for the time period specified. This resources reservation ensures that they are available for callers 8 Chapter 1: Overview of Conferencing Services when the conference starts.
After the system successfully completes this task, it returns a summary of the information necessary for users to join the conference. This information usually includes the telephone number of the conferencing system, a confirmation of the conference date and time, and some sort of meeting identification number or other identifier.
This information can then be sent as a meeting invitation or listed in a meeting roster.For stream 2, the mixed stream is the summation of stream 1 and stream 3, and so on.
Of the various functions performed by the gatekeeper, address resolution is the most important as it enables two endpoints to contact each other without either endpoint having to know the IP address of the other endpoint. Figure shows the major layers of a conferencing system: Steve Fry: The audio mixer is the core component in the media plane.
Topics include the role of a conference moderator, floor control, lecture and panel mode. In Figure , video RTP packets are received from the network.
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